Here`s a look at Saudi Arabia`s current initiative, as well as previous agreements between the Houthis and Saudi-backed pro-government forces: The group will continue to talk to the Saudis, the United States and mediator Oman about a peace deal, he said. The representative of the United Kingdom sounded the alarm about an impending period of even deeper darkness in Yemen, which could be marked by a second wave of COVID-19 and famine. In this context, he called on the government and all parties to disclose all data collected and grant unrestricted access to international personnel and accessories. He reiterated his support for Special Envoy Griffith`s calls for a nationwide ceasefire and noted with concern that the Houthis had launched a new escalation against Saudi Arabia the same week that Saudi Arabia publicly reaffirmed its commitment to the peace process. «We need to be clear about who is hindering the EFFORTS OF THE UNITED NATIONS,» she stressed. He welcomed the arrival of fuel ships in the port of Hodeidah and urged the government to immediately release all remaining fuel ships and called on all parties to work with the special envoy to find a lasting solution, as the current shortages come at a time when 16 million Yemenis are at risk of starvation. She called on the Houthis to ensure that incoming fuel is distributed and not used to escalate the conflict. It welcomed Mr. Lowcock on the state of play of negotiations on the tanker Safer and nevertheless sounded the alarm that international inspectors were still unable to access it. «The responsibility for this matter rests on the shoulders of the Houthis,» and if they do not act, the council must discuss further steps to be taken, she said. The agreement included a ceasefire along the Hodeidah Front and the transfer of forces from the city and ports of Hodeidah, Salif and Ras Issa.
It was never fully implemented, but despite occasional skirmishes, the agreement mitigated the situation to some extent. Since 2018, UNMHA`s mandate has been extended twice (it currently lasts until July 2021), but due to the pandemic, the monitoring team essentially left the city (there was only a team of 12 people left in the country). More importantly, Hodeidah remains a deadly and dangerous place: the Houthis have consolidated their gains on the west coast, and violence has escalated dramatically on other fronts. A comprehensive settlement as well as a nationwide ceasefire now seem to be distant goals. What happened to the ceasefire in Hodeidah and what did UNMHA members experience in Yemen? On the fourth day of the armistice, fragile peace dissolved when fighting broke out in several southern governorates. At least three civilians in Aden and 12 in Taiz were killed on 16 May despite the ceasefire.  The France-Presse Agency reported that «dozens» in South Yemen were killed by the clashes, including 26 Houthis and 12 pro-Hadi fighters.  The French representative called for an immediate end to the attacks in Marib and against Saudi Arabia and called on the parties – particularly the Houthis – to respond positively to the Special Envoy`s call for a nationwide ceasefire and the opening of Yemeni ports and airports. Only a political solution that guarantees Yemen`s sovereignty and territorial integrity will end the conflict, he said, also calling for efforts to combat impunity and expressing concern over reports of the continued recruitment of children in Marib. Additional efforts are also needed to prevent an environmental disaster related to the safer tanker, he stressed, adding that the Houthis will be responsible for such an outcome if they continue to prevent international actors from accessing the ship. He welcomed the efforts to scale up the COVID-19 vaccination campaign that have been made possible through the coveax global facility and said it is more urgent than ever to ensure humanitarian access to all people in need. Violations of international law will not go unpunished, he said, demanding that all parties respect their humanitarian obligations.
«Even war has rules,» he concluded. The article is based on a review of all UN documents related to Yemen between December 2018 and September 2020 and interviews with UNMHA members and local Yemenis. Palik noted that the Stockholm Agreement was due to external pressures, that it had been rushed and that it had a weak conception that subjected it to competing interpretations by the parties to the conflict. Secondly, UNMHA and the UN Special Envoy have been accused of being biased, which has weakened their credibility and led to a loss of trust between the two parties to the conflict. Third, UNMHA was stationed exclusively in Houthi-controlled areas, but military and political developments elsewhere in the country have called into question the implementation of the ceasefire. Finally, the commitment of the parties to implement the ceasefire was weak, if not completely absent. In summary, these factors have made it virtually impossible for UNMHA to fulfil its mandate. The representative of Norway stressed the need for the full, equal and meaningful inclusion and participation of women in the UN consultations on Yemen – even if the parties choose the members of both negotiating teams. She joined other speakers in expressing concern about the offensive in Marib and the ongoing cross-border attacks against Saudi Arabia threatening stability throughout the region, saying that the emergence of new front lines could lead to serious escalation. She also described the humanitarian situation as deeply worrying and welcomed the government`s recent announcements that some oil tankers would enter the port. However, other steps are needed.
It expressed concern at reports of human rights violations, including attacks on camps for internally displaced persons and denial of humanitarian access, leading to malnutrition and hunger. The Riyadh agreement on Yemen and the formation of the new government in December 2020 were important steps that must be maintained as fragmentation will only undermine the prospects for peace. Noting that Ramadan is just beginning, she called on all parties, especially the Houthis, to show mercy and compassion through an unconditional national ceasefire and political talks. Saudi Arabia declared a 14-day ceasefire on April 9, which UN chief Antonio Guterres hailed for promoting peace and slowing the spread of COVID-19. After the United Nations called on both sides to continue peace talks to address the COVID-19 pandemic in Yemen, the Saudi-led coalition declared a unilateral ceasefire from April 9 at noon to support efforts to contain the COVID-19 pandemic.  Despite the promise of a ceasefire in Yemen, the Saudi-led coalition carried out dozens of airstrikes in a week. The Yemen Data Project said at least 106 Saudi-led airstrikes in 26 attacks in Yemen were carried out by the kingdom in just one week.  On July 2, coalition warplanes launched dozens of airstrikes on several Yemeni provinces. The operation was in response to the Houthis` ballistic missile and drone strikes against Saudi Arabia.  The representative of Estonia called on all parties to immediately de-escalate the situation and end hostilities, including the Houthi attack on Marib and cross-border attacks on Saudi Arabia. .